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When and Where was the Piano Invented?

Updated: Aug 13, 2023

A graceful invention that changed the course of music history, the piano has become one of the most beloved and played instruments around the world. So, when and where was the piano invented? Let's dive into the piano's history and its influence on the world of music.

I. Precursors to the Piano

A. Monochord and Organistrum (Ancient Greece)

Monochord: An essential foundation for keyboard instruments, the monochord was a single-stringed device used by Pythagoras and other ancient Greek scholars to study musical intervals and sound frequency.

  • Example: Pythagoras' monochord, 6th century BC, used to demonstrate the mathematical relationship between string length and pitch.

  • Comparison with Modern Piano: Unlike the piano, the monochord produced only one tone and was used more for mathematical and philosophical studies rather than performance.

Organistrum: This early string instrument used a keyboard mechanism to stop the strings, and it was often associated with sacred music.

  • Example: Organistrum was used in medieval Europe, particularly in church settings.

  • Comparison with Modern Piano: Though primitive, the Organistrum's concept of using keys to affect string vibration is an early step towards the modern piano's action mechanism.

B. The Hydraulis (3rd Century BC)

Hydraulis: An ancient Greek water organ considered an early ancestor of the pipe organ and subsequently the piano. It used water pressure to pump air through pipes, creating sound.

  • Example: The Hydraulis found in Dion, Greece, dates back to the 1st century BC.

  • Comparison with Modern Piano: The Hydraulis' reliance on water for sound production is far removed from the piano's mechanism, but it marked a significant development in the use of a keyboard to control pitch.

C. Harpsichord (Middle Ages)

Harpsichord: Developed in Europe during the Middle Ages, the harpsichord became a key precursor to the piano. It used quills to pluck strings, creating a distinctive and bright sound.

  • Example: The Flemish Harpsichord from the 16th century, known for its lavish decoration and strong resonance.

  • Comparison with Modern Piano: Unlike the piano's hammers, the harpsichord's quills allowed no control over dynamics. The invention of the hammer action was essential to overcoming this limitation, leading to the modern piano's ability to express both soft and loud dynamics.

D. Clavichord (Late Middle Ages to Renaissance)

Clavichord: A smaller, more intimate instrument than the harpsichord, the clavichord allowed for more expressive control through its simple striking mechanism.

  • Example: Fretted Clavichords from the 16th century, allowing multiple keys to share a single string, which affected the tuning and temperament.

  • Comparison with Modern Piano: The Clavichord's action provided a direct connection between key and string, allowing subtle control over volume and expression. This responsiveness to touch can be seen as an early form of the piano's touch sensitivity.

E. Virginal (Renaissance)

Virginal: A smaller relative of the harpsichord, often rectangular in shape and highly decorated. It had a plucked mechanism similar to the harpsichord but was more portable.

  • Example: The "Queen Elizabeth's Virginal," a beautiful 16th-century instrument owned by Queen Elizabeth I of England.

  • Comparison with Modern Piano: Like the harpsichord, the virginal lacked dynamic control but contributed to the evolution of keyboard layout and design, which influenced the modern piano.

These instruments, each with their unique characteristics, designs, and roles in music history, laid the groundwork for the modern piano. Their evolution showcases the constant search for more expressive means of sound production, culminating in the versatile and beloved instrument that the piano has become today.

II. The Birth of the Piano

A. Cristofori's Invention (Early 18th Century)

  1. Bartolomeo Cristofori of Italy: Credited with inventing the first modern piano in 1709 in Florence Italy, Cristofori's innovation was in its unique hammer mechanism. It was called the Cristofori's Pianoforte.

    • Visual Description: Ornate wooden casing with intricate artistry, resembling a harpsichord in appearance but housing a distinct mechanical system.

    • Mechanical Description: Cristofori's innovation lay in the "escapement" mechanism that allowed the hammer to fall back after striking the string. This allowed the string to vibrate freely and enabled the performer to control dynamics.

    • Sound Characteristics: Unlike the harpsichord, Cristofori's pianoforte could produce both soft and loud sounds, depending on how forcefully a key was struck.

Bartolomeo Cristofori

Oldest of the three extant pianos by Cristofori, 1720

B. The Term 'Pianoforte'

  1. Etymology and Meaning: Derived from Italian, the term 'pianoforte' means 'soft-loud,' aptly referring to the instrument's capability to produce both soft and loud sounds.

    • Comparison with Precursors: Prior keyboard instruments, like the harpsichord, lacked dynamic control. The pianoforte's name emphasizes this revolutionary feature.

    • Modern Usage: The term has since been shortened to 'piano,' though the full name encapsulates the essence of the instrument's expressive range.

C. Technological Advancements

18th Century: The early pianos underwent various changes in design, construction, and materials.

  • Mechanical Enhancements: The English action (English double action) and Viennese action (Viennese single action) were two distinct mechanical systems, each with a unique feel and sound. English action provided a more robust sound, while Viennese offered a lighter touch.

  • Visual Changes: The range of keys expanded, and the casing evolved from ornate baroque styles to more streamlined classical designs.

  • Sound Innovations: The use of iron frames helped increase string tension, leading to a more resonant and powerful sound.

19th Century: The industrial revolution brought more technological innovations.

  • Mechanical Advancements: Introduction of the overstrung scale, where strings crossed over each other, allowed for a richer tonal quality.

  • Visual Evolution: Continued expansion of the keyboard to the standard 88 keys and the transition from straight legs to more stylized and robust designs, reflecting Romantic aesthetic values.

  • Sound Enhancements: The development of the sostenuto pedal added to the expressiveness, and improvements in casting techniques for the iron frame led to increased stability and resonance.

20th Century and Beyond: Modern innovations continued to shape the piano.

  • Mechanical Modernizations: The perfection of the double escapement action allowed for faster repetition of notes.

  • Visual Adaptations: Modern pianos incorporated minimalist design elements, suitable for various interior decors.

  • Sound Progressions: Ongoing improvements in materials and construction continue to refine the piano's sound, adapting to contemporary musical needs.

Cristofori's invention sparked a journey of relentless innovation, leading to the modern piano's rich tapestry of visual allure, mechanical complexity, and sonic beauty. These advancements have not only contributed to the piano's status as a beloved instrument but have also impacted the evolution of Western music as a whole.

III. Learning the Piano Today

The rich history of the piano's development, from its ancient precursors to Cristofori's innovative design and subsequent technological advancements, continues to inspire musicians today. The piano's expressive range, visual allure, and intricate mechanics make it a versatile and engaging instrument to learn.

For those interested in embarking on this musical journey, institutions across the globe offer comprehensive lessons in piano playing. If you are in the Western Massachusetts area, Descant Music and Art Studio in Holyoke, MA, provides instruction in piano, voice, guitar, and bass guitar. Such educational establishments facilitate an understanding of both the practical and theoretical aspects of music, fostering an appreciation for the artistic and historical dimensions of the piano.

Whether a beginner or an advanced player, learning the piano offers a fulfilling exploration of melody, harmony, rhythm, and emotion, all built on the foundations laid by centuries of musical evolution and innovation.


From ancient Greece's monochord to Cristofori's pianoforte, the piano's evolution is a captivating journey that shaped the music world. "When and where was the piano invented?" transcends mere historical fact, opening a window into human innovation, artistry, and the timeless appeal of music.

Captivated by the world of music and eager to explore piano, voice, guitar, or bass guitar lessons? Take the next step on your musical journey by filling out our MORE INFORMATION form, and we'll connect with you soon!

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